Chapter 15

Improvement In Food Resources

Intext Questions and Answers

Page #204
1. What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits, and vegetables?
Ans: Cereals give carbohydrates which provide energy. Pulses give proteins which build our body. Vegetables and fruits provide vitamins and minerals.

Page #205

1. How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?
Ans: Factors responsible for the loss of grains, during storage and production are: (a) Biotic factors like rodents, pests, insects, etc.
(b) Abiotic factors like temperature, humidity, moisture, etc.

2. What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements? Ans: Some of the characteristics are
For fodder crops- tall plants, high branching.
For cereal crops- dwarfness.
For tobacco, leafy crops- broad leaves, more leaves.
Page # 206

1. What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macro-nutrients?
Ans: Macro nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulphur, etc.
Those nutrients that are required by plants in large quantities to complete their life cycle are called macro-nutrients.

2. How do plants get nutrients?
Ans: Plants get the nutrients present in air, soil, and water. The nutrients present in air, soil, and water are absorbed by plants through leaves and roots.

Page # 207

1. Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility. Ans: manures:
  • The manures enrich the soil with nutrients.
  • They provide a lot of organic matter (humus) to the soil and thus restores water retention capacity of sandy soils and drainage in clayey soil.
  • The addition of manures reduces soil erosion.
  • They provide food for soil friendly bacteria which are helpful in growing crops.
  • They provide food for soil organisms, like soil friendly bacteria.
  • Eutrophication is the side-effect.
  • By the continuous use of fertilizers, the soil becomes powdery, dry, and the rate of soil erosion increases.
  • By the use of fertilizers, the organic matter decreases which further decreases the porosity of soil and the plant roots do not get oxygen properly.
  • The nature of soil changes to acidic or basic.
  • Side effects are not observed.
Page # 208

1. Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?
(a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation, or use fertilizers.
(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation, and use fertilizer.
(c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer, and use crop protection measures.
Ans: (c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer, and use crop protection measures.
Because the use of good quality seeds is not only sufficient until the soil is properly irrigated.

Page # 209

1. Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?
Ans: Preventive measures and biological control methods should be preferred for protecting crops because these methods are safe ecologically and do not harm other life forms.
Excessive use of chemicals can lead to many environmental problems and cause pollution. They can also enter the food chain and cause serious health hazards.
Biological control methods involve the use of biological organisms and hence, these are completely safe for other life forms.

2. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?
  • During the storage of grains, various biotic factors such as insects, rodents, mites, fungi, bacteria, etc. and
  • Various abiotic factors such as inappropriate moisture, temperature, lack of sunlight, etc. are responsible for losses of grains.
  • These factors act on stored grains and result in degradation, poor germinability, discolouration, etc.
Page #210

1. Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?
Ans: Cross-breeding.
This method is adopted to produce the animals with both the desired character of their parents such as
  1. Long lactation period
  2. Excellent resistance to diseases.
Page # 211

1. Discuss the implications of the following statement:
“It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food”.
Ans: The basic aim of poultry farming is to raise domestic fowl for egg production and chicken meat. These poultry birds are not only the efficient converters of agricultural by-products, particularly cheaper fibrous wastes into high-quality meat and also help in providing egg, feathers, and nutrient-rich manure.

Page #211

1. What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Ans:  Management practices common to dairy and poultry farming are
(a) Feeding of animals
(b) Providing shelter for animals
(c) Animal health and care
(d) Breeding of animals

2. What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Ans: Broilers – the poultry birds raised for meat chicken purposes are called broilers.
Broilers feed on protein-rich in adequate fats.
The level of vitamins of A and K is kept high in poultry farming.
Layers – the egg layers poultry farming is called layers.
The housing environmental and nutritional requirements of broilers vary from those from egg layers.
Layers require proper lighting and enough space.
Page # 213

1. How are fish obtained?
Ans: Fish are obtained by using the following two methods:
  1. Capture fishing that is getting fish from natural resources.
  2. Culture fishing that is getting fish from fish farming.
2. What are the advantages of composite fish culture?
(a) Both Indian and exotics speak fish species are cultured.
(b) The selected fish species do not compete for food as they have different feeding habits.
(c) The food available throughout the pond is consumed.
(d) The fish production from a pond increases.
Page # 213

1. What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?
Ans: The bee variety-
  • Should show high honey collection capacity.
  • Should not sting.
  • Should stay in the beehive here for a long period.
  • Should lay a large number of eggs.
2. What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?
Ans: Pasture means the flowers available to the bees for honey production
Honey production depends on –
  • The kind of flowers for nectar and pollen collection.
  • The quantity of flowers
  • The location of pastures from apiaries.
  • The honey flow period.
Exercises question and answer

1. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.
Ans: One important method that ensures high yield is using improved variety .one method by which an improved variety can be obtained is plant breeding/ hybridization.
In the technique, to genetically dissimilar parents having at least one described characteristic or cross to produce a hybrid with both desirable characteristics.

2. Why are manures and fertilizers used in fields?
Ans: Crop plants required a regular dose of nutrients that are supplied by fertilizers and manures. They increase crop production.

3. What are the advantages of intercropping and crop rotation?
Ans: Intercropping
  • Two or more crops are cultivated at the same time.
  • Fertilizer and pesticide can be applied to the two crops.
  • Harvesting of two crops can be done separately.
  • The produce of two crops can be easily marketed.
  • It ensures maximum utilization of nutrients.
  • It helps to prevent pests and diseases from spreading.
Crop rotation.
  • It improves the fertility of soil.
  • It improves crop productivity and utilization of the crop field.
  • A variety of crops can be produced.
4. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?

Ans: Genetic manipulation means incorporating the desirable characteristics in types of crops by the introduction of genes.
These crops formed are called genetically modified organisms.
This practice is useful as –
  • It increases the crop productivity.
  • It improves the quality of the crop.
  • It helps in obtaining diseases resistant varieties.
  • Any describable trait or feature can be introduced.
5. How do storage grains losses occur?
Ans: Losses of grains during the storage occurs due to the following two factors—
(a) Biotic factor – insect, fungi, rodents, birds, microorganisms.
(b) Abiotic factors – temperature of storage structure, moisture content of the grain, moisture in storage

6. How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?
Ans: With good-animal husbandry practices, farmers are benefitted in the following ways –
(a) There have to spend less money on feedings, shelter, and care of animals.
(b) Their income increases as they are able to get good quality products from the animal.

7. What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Ans: With cattle farming, farmers are benefited –
(a) Milk production by the cattle which increases their income.
(b) Male animals can be used as draught animals to do agricultural tasks.
(c) Manure can be made from cow dung which is used to increase the fertility of the
(d) Cow-dung can be used in biogas-plant to get a clean fuel as well as manure.
8. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries, and beekeeping?
Ans: The common factors are-
(a) Both local varieties and exotic varieties can be used.
(b) All of them involve low investment informing.

9. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture?
Ans: Capture fishing – the process of obtaining fish from natural resources such as reverse and oceans is called capture fishing.
Mari culture – the process of culturing fish in marine water is called mariculture.
Aquaculture – the process of culturing fish in inland- water resource-like ponds is called aquaculture.

Important points 

  • There are 13 nutrients essential for crops, out of that six are required in a large quantity and are known as micronutrients.
  • Manure and fertilizers our main source of nutrients supply to crops.
  • Organic farming is a farming system with a minimal or no use of chemical as fertilizer and with a maximum input of organic manual.
  • Mixed farming is a system of farming on particular farmswhich includes crop production, raising of livestock, etc
  • Mixed crop is growing two or more crop simultaneously on the same piece of land.
  • The growing of different crops on pieces of land in pre-planned succession is called crop rotation.
  • To increase fresh production, they can be a cultured marine and the land ecosystem.
  • Bee-keeping is done to get honey and wax.